A list of some models and concepts that I refer back frequently.

  1. Entropy: Given enough time any system will fall into disarray. Helpful for planning and accounting for things that will go wrong.
  2. Signal-to-Noise Ratios: A heuristic to determine whether events/interactions/content is worth my attention. Investing a lot of time trying to refine this one.
  3. First Principles Thinking: Especially Musk's and Feynman's approach to assumptions.
  4. Regret Minimization Framework: "So, I wanted to project myself forward to age 80 and say, “Okay, now I’m looking back on my life. I want to have minimized the number of regrets I have.” I knew that when I was 80 I was not going to regret having tried this. I was not going to regret trying to participate in this thing called the Internet that I thought was going to be a really big deal." - Bezos.
  5. Growth Mindset: Strongly influenced by Jobs and Carol Dweck's Mindset.
  6. Local vs Global Maximums: Is this the right hill to climb?
  7. Lagging vs. Leading Indicators: For anything that I am measuring I try to ask myself: is this a leading or a lagging indicator?


  1. Anti-fragility: specifically as it applies to establishing stronger habits.
  2. Forcing Functions: the interaction design definition not the math one → In interaction design, a behavior-shaping constraint, a means of preventing undesirable user input usually made by mistake.