👤 Author : Antônio Domingos Araújo Cunha

🗓️ Date Published : 16/12/2022


School exclusion can occur for different reasons that need to be clarified in the context of educational institutions, regardless of whether they are public or private, in the Brazilian and transnational historical profile, by the influence exerted by systems considered benchmarks in the urban context of Curitiba, where the broad community participation in the development of public policies and monitoring of socio-legal and institutional developments is invoked. Understanding the causes that generate learning deficits in the achievement of knowledge and competencies becomes relevant to the extent that the exercise of tolerance becomes eminent in an increasingly complex society, lacking dialogue and articulations engaged with the educational process as a mechanism to repress social violence in all classes. In the same way, two atypical years of the institutional role of the school in the process of educational formation of our students were followed, considering the failure and approval rates, a greater systemic complacency and a breach of rigor in the classroom system can be perceived. The next stage, that is, 2021, with the return to the hybrid and face-to-face system in 2022. The referrals of clinical cases of school deficit in the Resource Room and the "More Learning" system, which does not configure clinical cases, but evolutionary deficits in the educational process, behave with a small number of students compared to the total number of students enrolled. The percentages of failure express a relative capacity to maximize school resources in the processes of psycho-pedagogical accompaniment, relying on few professionals and facilities.

Key Words: Cognitive deficit. Social exclusion. Socio-legal measures. Social violence. Public policies. Civil emancipation. Social Responsibility.


This article is divided in two moments. The first one gravitates around a floating reading of theoretical references and the second one in a practical construct of quantitative and qualitative investigation, making use of the discourse analysis adapted to Bardin's Methodology, to list the statements of significant subjects, found in the school context, where the author has talked with professional staff, teachers and students, to understand the cause-effect relationship of learning deficit, social insertion, school success or failure in the educational mission with an increasing degree of complex inferences according to the contemporary socio-political and geopolitical panoramas, as the need to understand the relationship between physiological and anatomical impairment of schoolchildren in the definition of their psychomotor development via school performance and the complex network of systemic relationships of the individual and his/her family, and social interaction that influence the standards of educational quality and school performance.

1. Exclusion as a trait of an exclusive and meritocratic society

The uninterrupted multiplication of disorganized voices, among them, those coming from workers, students, housewives, teachers and several other actors, offers us a panorama of diversity of the effectuation of history itself. The mirroring of the global discourse of domination as a political fact seeking to homogenize even the academic discourse, through the echo of these voices, notably after the period of 1964 in Brazil, often silencing that of the proletarian experiences. According to Chauí (p.33-34, 2004), the political practice of populism - the theoretical branch of the bourgeois-democratic revolution - aimed at equalizing the partners, both intellectuals and the working class$^1$, the second social agent being considered an abstraction or else qualified as inorganic and diffuse.

In this sense, the experience of a country marked by military dictatorship, where torture was indiscriminately applied, regardless of age, gender or the moral, physical and psychological situation of those suspected of subversive activities, where children were sacrificed in front of their parents, pregnant women who had their children aborted, wives who suffered to incriminate their husbands, in short, an abundant description of intimidating procedures that had an impact on the history of this country, notwithstanding the abundant examples from other countries, where the dictatorial experience especially overruled social rights (ARNS, p.220, 2009).

Later there was talk of a post-1964 period where the working classes came to find scope for the irremediable legacy of history in intellectual production that accentuated resistance to the blows suffered, even as a strategic dimension (DECCA, p. 35,1981).

Therefore, we can assume an educational model designed under the auspices of a dictatorship that imposed severe limitations on the right of institutional expression, mirroring the didactic-pedagogical orientation and tarnishing the social behaviour of the families themselves with obvious after-effects, elements that were not erased during the subsequent years until the supposed process of Brazilian re-democratization, which leads to an incisive expectation of changes in several public policies aimed at social inclusion, especially supported by the democratization of public services, with public schools as a broad scenario.

The specialization of the educational treatment of the "excluded people" would have a new interpretation in the attempt to diminish the differences through a discourse of homogenizing and inclusive effects, bringing a varied range of new problems for which there was not enough qualified manpower to face the difficulties brought into the school space, like emotional and cognitive deficits. The professionalization of students was enhanced, however, in universities, to promote the adjustment and adaptation of students in spaces known as "resource rooms", where essentially the transparency of a given pathology would make the students, subjects of law, beneficiaries of services provided by a limited number of professionals, upon explicit information from parents and/or guardians, about their citizen condition.

The fact is that the dynamics of a child's intellectual development can reach different degrees and the disproportionality of professionals and number of cases has become a limiting factor in the quality of such services. The destabilization of social classes leads to systemic incursions between the public and the private when the productive assumptions, such as reliability, quality, costs, flexibility and speed, start to stress social inequality in order to better qualify the individual within the limits of his possibilities, for a citizen life, based on the development of competencies. Although the subject does not remain in national boundaries and it shall be extended to several different societies, in accordance with the Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959).$^2$

2. Exclusionary disorders and precedents in psychological and educational development

Special education underwent profound changes during the 20th century, mainly concerned about social exclusion as well as all kinds of violence in the familiar, scholar, and community relationships.

Driven by social movements that claimed more equality among all citizens and the overcoming of any kind of discrimination, it was gradually incorporated into the regular education system and sought formulas to facilitate the integration of students with disabilities (COOL, p.15, 2004).

When considering learning disorders, which have worried teaching professionals the most, they refer to the high dropout and failure rates that have been recorded in municipal and state schools, as well as the large number of children who have sought psycho-pedagogical treatment, motivated by learning difficulties (MORAIS, p.23, 2006).

3. Integration of the disabled child into the school discourse

It is of course an important observation to conceive of what is expressed in the classroom as a form of opposition to change, that is, an expectation of an adultized mental restructuring.