The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) has revealed the details of how it took down crypto “pump and dump” Telegram groups back in October.

A pump-and-dump scheme typically involves using social media to coordinate users to buy large amounts of a thinly traded token to inflate its price artificially. They then cash out with massive gains after other investors, who aren’t in on the scheme, succumb to FOMO and buy in on a momentum trade.

The new documents reveal that the ASIC has been taking counsel from finance academic and crypto researcher Talis Putnins since early October.

A 38-slide presentation by Putnins to ASIC investigators revealed that pump-and-dump schemes are cyclical, peaking back during 2018 and again in 2021. The presentation stated that they tend to “correlate with overall market sentiment and prices.”

Pump-and-dump schemes are cyclical, peaking in 2018 and again in 2021. Source: Presentation to ASIC by Professor Talis Putnins

According to the presentation, several factors have changed between 2018 and the time of publication, during October 2021. Over a period of six months in 2018, Putnins documented over 355 cases of crypto market manipulation.

He referenced the schemes’ “transparent intention to pump” and the absence of any “genuine attempt to ignite momentum.” The schemes are “completely out in the open for everyone to see,” the presentation noted.

The presentation detailed the Telegram group “Crypto Binance Trading | Signals & Pumps” Sept. 19 pump of fractional algorithmic stablecoin system, Frax Share (FXS), which saw a massive 90% on $65 million volume in less than one minute.

The outcome of the September FXS pump was a 90% price increase in less than one minute. Source: Presentation to ASIC by Professor Talis Putnins

“With our volumes averaging 40 to 80 million $ per pump and peaks reaching up to 450% we are ready to announce our next big pump,” stated a Sept. 13 announcement in the group.

“Our main goal for this pump will be to make sure that every single member in our group makes a massive profit. We will also try reaching more than 100 million $ volume in the first few minutes with a very high % gain.”

What’s behind pump-and-dump schemes?

The presentation cited a perceived lack of legal risk, anonymity in forums and encryption as potential reasons for the groups, adding that there is a “perception that crypto is unregulated therefore pumps are legal.”

The new information was revealed in documents that The Australian newspaper was able to access through a freedom of information request. The Australian published the new information on Tuesday.

Last year, Putnins co-authored a paper titled “A New Wolf in Town? Pump-and-Dump Manipulation in Cryptocurrency Markets.”

The report concluded that crypto pump and dumps have created “extreme price distortions of 65 per cent on average, abnormal trading volumes in the millions of dollars, and large wealth transfers between participants.”