Extended Thevenin model is described by the following system of differential equations:

Where $I$ is the input current, $U_t$ is the terminal voltage, $U_{oc}$ is the Cell open-circuit voltage (a function of SoC), $R_0$ is the Cell internal resistance, and $R_{1,2}$, $C_{1,2}$, and $U_{1,2}$ model the Cell diffusion voltage.

An accurate equivalent circuit cell model with parameter functions trained by an adversarial network

Extended Thevenin model can be used in the following algorithms:

See also:


[1] Digital twin for battery systems: Cloud BMS with online SoC and SoH estimation