Examples of Black Swans

Part 1: Umberto Eco's AntiLibrary, or How We Seek Validation

This section addresses how humans deal with knowledge and our preference for the anecdotal over the empirical.

The Anti-Library


The Triplet of Opacity

The human mind suffers from three ailments as it comes into contact with history:

1. Illusion of understanding

2. Retrospective distortion: how we can only assess matters after the fact