schism: 宗派分裂。通常指 1054年基督教东西教会分立。

维罗纳的瓜里诺Guarino da Verona,又作 Guarino Guarini,1370年於维罗纳-1460年12月14日於費拉拉義大利文藝復興時期人文主義者。文藝復興早期希臘古典文學研究之先驅。

方济会士(Franciscans) 道明会士(Dominicans)

Council of Trent.指天主教會於1545年至1563年間在北義大利特倫托波隆那召開的反宗教改革大公會議

Jesuits, the Society of Jesus 耶稣会;耶稣会士. 1540年建立。基督教为应对宗教改革而做出的改变。

Chapter 1.

Background of scientific revolution

Chapter 2

(Neoplatonist)新柏拉图主义者

timaeus 蒂迈欧篇 ( 柏拉图)

Aristotelian: casual knowledge. To know a thing requires identifying it's fource "causes"

These ‘causes’ can be illustrated using a statue of Achilles (阿喀琉斯). The statue’s efficient cause is the sculptor, its material cause is marble, its formal cause is the beautiful body of Achilles, and its final cause is to celebrate the memory of Achilles. There can be more than one of each of the causes (for example, the statue might also have the final cause of being decorative, or perhaps, in some Attic house, to act as a coat rack).

frontispiece: 书的卷首插图。

archetypus:原型(Archetypus)一词来源于希腊语“arche”(最初)和“typos”(形式)。

Aristotelianism: 亚里斯多德哲学

古希腊医学认为构成人体的 four humours