Each cortical column can learn models (maps) of complete objects. Knowledge is embodied in models.

Objects are defined by sets of observed features in the upper layer of a cortical column associated with a set of locations of/on the object (lower layer of neurons). If you know the feature, you can determine a location. If you know the location, you can predict the feature.

Humans learn only within reference frames: "features" are actually links to other reference frames, so it's reference frames all the way down. Neocortex used hierarchy to assemble objects into more complex objects.

Each cortical column can learn hundreds of models.

References frames are used to model everything we know, not just physical objects. Thinking is moving between adjacent locations in a reference frame. All knowledge is stored at locations in reference frames.

Reference frames also allow to achieve conceptual goals such as solving an engineering problem, or getting a promotion at work.

Two visual pathways (sets of cortical columns): "what" and "where". If only "what" working, a person can say what object do they see, but cannot reach for it. Similar separation also exists for hearing and touch.

Cortical grid cells in "what" columns attach reference frames to objects. Cortical grid cells in "where" columns attach reference frames to the body.

When a column learns a model of something, part of it is discovering what is a good reference frame, including determining the number of dimensions. This might be the most difficult part of learning, even though people may not be consciously aware of it.





A Thousand Brains