I've been thinking about a distinction between 'offensive' and 'defensive' infrastructure:

The end result of completing a defensive infrastructure project is simply maintenance of a status quo (avoiding a deterioration), rather than a leap forward. Defensive projects are necessary and worthwhile, but a patchwork of smaller-scale, easier-to-fund defensive projects may crowd out offensive projects that require higher political vision and a longer payoff time.

Examples

Offensive

Defensive: