File Stream Oriented Progreamming

The file stream consists of the _IO_FILE structure. Even essential file streams such as stderr, stdout, stdin consist of the _IO_FILE structure too.

Thus, _IO_FILE is a structure used to consisting a file stream in the Linux system's standard library.

At the libc, the _IO_FILE structure chaining with a Single linked list.

_IO_list_all -> 
_IO_2_1_stdin_.file._chain ->
_IO_2_1_stdout_.file._chain ->
struct _IO_FILE
  int _flags;		/* High-order word is _IO_MAGIC; rest is flags. */
  /* The following pointers correspond to the C++ streambuf protocol. */
  char *_IO_read_ptr;	/* Current read pointer */
  char *_IO_read_end;	/* End of get area. */
  char *_IO_read_base;	/* Start of putback+get area. */
  char *_IO_write_base;	/* Start of put area. */
  char *_IO_write_ptr;	/* Current put pointer. */
  char *_IO_write_end;	/* End of put area. */
  char *_IO_buf_base;	/* Start of reserve area. */
  char *_IO_buf_end;	/* End of reserve area. */
  /* The following fields are used to support backing up and undo. */
  char *_IO_save_base; /* Pointer to start of non-current get area. */
  char *_IO_backup_base;  /* Pointer to first valid character of backup area */
  char *_IO_save_end; /* Pointer to end of non-current get area. */
  struct _IO_marker *_markers;
  struct _IO_FILE *_chain;
  int _fileno;
  int _flags2;
  __off_t _old_offset; /* This used to be _offset but it's too small.  */
  /* 1+column number of pbase(); 0 is unknown. */
  unsigned short _cur_column;
  signed char _vtable_offset;
  char _shortbuf[1];
  _IO_lock_t *_lock;

Arbitrary memory write


Commonly, If the libc address is can be leaked, overwrite such as __malloc_hook function.

_IO_FILE vtable overwrite


struct _IO_FILE_plus
  _IO_FILE file;
  const struct _IO_jump_t *vtable;

vtable variable is consisted by _IO_jump_t structure and when a file management function is got called, the function will be called with reference to this table.

const struct _IO_jump_t _IO_file_jumps libio_vtable =
  JUMP_INIT(finish, _IO_file_finish),
  JUMP_INIT(overflow, _IO_file_overflow),
  JUMP_INIT(underflow, _IO_file_underflow),
  JUMP_INIT(uflow, _IO_default_uflow),
  JUMP_INIT(pbackfail, _IO_default_pbackfail),
  JUMP_INIT(xsputn, _IO_file_xsputn),
  JUMP_INIT(xsgetn, _IO_file_xsgetn),
  JUMP_INIT(seekoff, _IO_new_file_seekoff),
  JUMP_INIT(seekpos, _IO_default_seekpos),
  JUMP_INIT(setbuf, _IO_new_file_setbuf),
  JUMP_INIT(sync, _IO_new_file_sync),
  JUMP_INIT(doallocate, _IO_file_doallocate),
  JUMP_INIT(read, _IO_file_read),
  JUMP_INIT(write, _IO_new_file_write),
  JUMP_INIT(seek, _IO_file_seek),
  JUMP_INIT(close, _IO_file_close),
  JUMP_INIT(stat, _IO_file_stat),
  JUMP_INIT(showmanyc, _IO_default_showmanyc),
  JUMP_INIT(imbue, _IO_default_imbue)

The _IO_FILE_plus.vtable has file function pointers. when the file function's got called, the corresponding function's pointer will be invoked from there.