牛津通识读本 | 孤独症
by Uta Frith, published by Oxford University Press
- Neurotypical or NT: an abbreviation of neurologically typical, is a neologism widely used in the autistic community as a label for non-autistic people.
- Autism spectrum: overall prevalence: 1%
- Class Autism: 0.3%
- mild autism / high-functioning / Asperger syndrome: 0.7%
- In a world of his own (lack reciprocal social interaction)
- Unable to communicate. different levels ( severe → middle ASD spectrum):
- speak late and the use of language is extremely limited (use language if he wants something, but not to express feeling or thoughts)
- impossible to know whether people make jokes or other meaning behind languages
- does not enjoy ordinary chitchat. (unable to engage in a conversation)
- Restricted and repetitive (repetitive activities and narrow interests)
When does autism start?
- Normal children begin to develop joint attention from the beginning of second year. People with ASD don't.
- regression or lack of progress, often in secondary year.
- biology: bigger brains (pruning overgrowth in the developing brain)
The big three (or five) ideas
Unable to read minds / mentalizing in the brain.
The Sally-Anne test
Lack of social drive (Not driven to be social)