Part of Reference frames, Mental reference frames of concepts have at most seven "features"?, Causal diagram, and the review of ‣.
I think that in causal and counterfactual reasoning, humans use reference frames with caused-by (and causes) relationships:
I think that There are no “horizontal”, mesh-like connections in reference frames of concepts, so I don’t think that human brains effectively store the causal diagrams as they are typically drawn:
A simple example of a graphical causal diagram.
However, the human brain can navigate such models by traversing a series of star-like reference frames with caused-by and causes relationships.
There is a related connection between ‣ and A Thousand Brains: Pearl and Mackenzie write that Causal explanations, not dry facts, make up the bulk of human knowledge, which translates into Hawkins’ idea that Humans learn only within reference frames.